Writing your own LINQ provider, part 2

This is the second in a short series of posts on writing your own LINQ provider. A quick outline of the series:

  1. A primer
  2. Provider basics (this post)
  3. A simple, pointless solution
  4. A tiny ORM of our own

Provider Basics

In the previous post, we took a look at the two flavors of LINQ methods, i.e. the methods and classes around IEnumerable<T> and the methods and classes around IQueryable<T>. In this post, we expand upon what happens when you call LINQ methods on IQueryable<T>, and how you can use that to build your own provider.

Once you have an instance of IQueryable<T>, you can do one of three things with it:

  1. Enumerate it, using one of the following methods:
    1. Call a method such as ToListToArray or ToDictionary on it.
    2. Use it in a foreach loop.
    3. Call GetEnumerator() and then use the enumerator you get in the usual way.
  2. Call a LINQ method that returns a scalar result (this also results in the queryable getting enumerated) such as AnyFirstAllSingle, etc.
  3. Call a LINQ method (such as WhereSelectOrderBy etc.) that returns another IQueryable with some rules added that you can again do one of these very three things with.

For the first situation, IQueryable behaves just like any IEnumerable in that the GetEnumerator() method is called – so this is where you implement what you want to happen when the final enumeration happens. Usually, you do this by writing your own implementation of IEnumerator<T> for this purpose that you return from the GetEnumerator() method.

For the remaining two situations, the Provider and Expression properties of IQueryable<T> come into play. When you implement IQueryable<T>, you need to implement the getter for the Provider property to return an implementation of IQueryProvider<T> that does what you want.

In both cases, here is what the LINQ methods do:

  1. Create a lambda expression that represents the LINQ method call.
  2. Get a reference to the Provider for the target IQueryable<T>.
  3. For the first case, call Execute on the IQueryProvider<T> from step 2. For the second case, call CreateQuery on the ‘IQueryProvider` from step 2.
  4. The only thing that is different across different LINQ methods is the type parameters that are passed in, e.g. Any<T> will call Execute<bool> whileFirst will call Execute<T>. Similarly, Where<T> will call CreateQuery<T> while Select<TSource, TResult> will call CreateQuery<TResult>.

To drive the point home, here is the simplified source code for Where<T>:

public static IQueryable<T> Where<T>(
    this IQueryable<T> source, 
    Expression<Func<T, bool>> predicate)
{
    var currentMethodOpen = (MethodInfo) MethodBase.GetCurrentMethod();
    var currentMethod = currentMethodOpen.MakeGenericMethod(new[] {typeof (T)});
    var callArguments = new[] { source.Expression, Expression.Quote(predicate) };
    var callExpression = Expression.Call(null, currentMethod, callArguments);

    return source.Provider.CreateQuery<T>(callExpression);
}

And here is the simplified source code for Any<T>:

public static bool Any<T>(this IQueryable<T> source, Expression<Func<T, bool>> predicate)
{
    var currentMethodOpen = (MethodInfo) MethodBase.GetCurrentMethod();
    var currentMethod = currentMethodOpen.MakeGenericMethod(new[] {typeof (T)});

    return source.Provider.Execute<bool>(Expression.Call(
        null, currentMethod, new[] {source.Expression}));
}

Note how neither method body does anything specific to what a “Where” or “Any” operation should do. It just wraps that information in an expression and calls the appropriate method on the Provider. It is up to the provider to understand the expression (which is passed in as a parameter to bothCreateQuery and Execute) and perform the correct operation. This is why when you build a LINQ provider, it is up to you to write the translation logic for each LINQ operation as it relates to your data source, or write a fallback that says “this operation is not supported.”

Creating a new LINQ provider, then, can be boiled down to the following steps:

Step 1

Create a class that implements IQueryable<T> (say, YourQueryable<T>).

  1. There should be a way to construct this class and pass in some sort of an interface to the underlying data source to use (e.g. in NHibernate,session.Query<T> on the NHibernate ISession object does this).
  2. The call to GetEnumerator() should return your implementation of IEnumerator<T>, (say, YourEnumerator<T>). It should be initialized with the value of YourQueryable.Expression at the time of the call.
  3. The getter for the Provider property should return an instance of IQueryProvider<T> (say, YourQueryProvider<T>). The provider should have access to the underlying data source interface.

Step 2: Option 1

The logic to parse the final expression can go in YourEnumerator<T>. In this case, YourQueryProvider.CreateQuery simply returns a new instance ofYourQueryable<T> but with the Expression set to what is passed in to CreateQuery. The very first instance of YourQueryable<T> would then set theExpression to Expression.Constant(this). This way, when the time comes to enumerate and you get to YourEnumerator<T>, you have an expression that represents the complete call chain. That is where you then put the hard part of parsing that so that the first call to MoveNext does the right thing against the underlying data source.

Step 2: Option 2

Another option is to have a dumb YourEnumerator<T> and instead have a separate implementation of IQueryable<T> for each type of query operation to support (e.g. WhereQueryable',SelectQueryable’, etc.) In this case, the parsing logic is spread out across these classes, andYourQueryProvider.CreateQuery needs to examine the expression then and there return the correct type of IQueryable<T> with all the necessary information wrapped within. In any case, though, the expression as a whole must be parsed before enumeration happens.

Step 3

YourQueryProvider.Execute then needs to have logic that parses the expression passed in, figures out what needs to be done and return the result. This may involve enumerating the underlying IQueryable<T>. Going back to an ORM that is based on SQL Server, say, you would need to know to generate an WHERE EXISTS clause if you spot an Any in the expression.

Now, granted, all of this sounds pretty convoluted and can be hard to get a grip on without an example. So, we will do just that in the next post. We will start with a simple but pointless solution that does LINQ just for the sake of LINQ. Then, we’ll try to build a rudimentary ORM of our own.

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3 thoughts on “Writing your own LINQ provider, part 2

  1. Pingback: Writing your own LINQ provider, part 1 | Aashish Koirala

  2. Pingback: Writing your own LINQ provider, part 3 | Aashish Koirala

  3. Pingback: Writing your own LINQ provider, part 4 | Aashish Koirala

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